A method for computing planned comparisons among means is described in another section. That method is generalized here so that it can be used with unequal as well as with equal sample sizes.

First compute

where L = ΣM

a

n

M

MSE is from the analysis of variance. It equals SSE/dfe

The t is based on dfe = N-a degrees of freedom where N is the total number of subjects and "a" is the number of groups.