For this example,

There are 10 - 1 = 9 degrees of freedom (Note that the sample size is the number of difference scores, not the total number of scores.) A t table can be used to find that the probability value is 0.074.

An alternate formula for s

where s

An example of a report of this result is shown below.

The mean time to respond to a visual stimulus (M = 319.5) was longer than the mean time to respond to an auditory stimulus (M = 297.5). However, this difference was not statistically significant, t(9) = 2.02, p = 0.074.