Tests of Differences between Means, Independent Groups, Standard Deviation Estimated (2 of 8)

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  1. The second step is to choose a significance level. Assume the .05 level is chosen.
  2. The third step is to compute the difference between sample means (Md). In this example, Mt = 63.89, MN = 46.79 and Md = MT - MN = 17.10.

  3. The fourth step is to compute p, the probability (or probability value) of obtaining a difference between and the value specified by the null hypothesis (0) as large or larger than the difference obtained in the experiment. Applying the general formula,

    where Md is the difference between sample means, µ1 - µ2 is the difference between population means specified by the null hypothesis (usually zero), and is the estimated standard error of the difference between means.
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