Next section: Rank randomization tests

Fortunately, there is an alternative computational method called "resampling." Instead of calculating all possible ways the data could be arranged, one can take numerous random samples from the set of possible arrangements. For the problem of dividing 45 numbers into three groups of 15 each, one could randomly select 10,000 of the possible arrangements and determine the proportion of these for which the effect size in the sample is exceeded. This proportion is then an accurate estimate of the probability level. This procedure is currently not in frequent use due, in part, to the general unavailability of programs to do this type of computation.

Next section: Rank randomization tests