Next section: Tests supplementing ANOVA

Computational formulas for the sums of squares will not be given since it is assumed that complex analyses will not be done by hand.

As always, a mean square is computed by dividing the sum of squares by the degrees of freedom. Generally speaking, no mean square is computed for the variable "subjects" since it is assumed that subjects differ from one another thus making a significance test of "subjects" superfluous. F Ratios The F ratio for each effect is the mean square for the test divided by the mean square error for the effect. Since there is a separate error term for each effect, a different mean square error is used in each test.

Next section: Tests supplementing ANOVA