Next section: ANOVA with two within-subject variables

Computational formulas for the sums of squares will not be given since it is assumed that complex analyses will not be done by hand.

As always, a mean square is computed by dividing the sum of squares by the degrees of freedom. Generally speaking, no mean square is computed for the variable "subjects" since it is assumed that subjects differ from one another thus making a significance test of "subjects" superfluous.

The F from a within-subjects design with two levels of the independent variable is equal to the t² from a test of differences between dependent means. This relationship is the same as the relationship between F and t in between-subject designs.

Next section: ANOVA with two within-subject variables